翻译“文学”,还是翻译“中国”?


发布者:上海翻译公司 发布时间:2017-8-11


  当四川外国语大学教授胡安江质疑西方世界翻译中国文学,究竟是翻译“文学”,还是翻 译“中国”时,他实际上要阐明的一个基本事实是,文学翻译并不只是一个简单的文学问题,也不是一 个只要跨越语言障碍就能解决的问题,而是一个同时受制于文学之外诸多因素影响的综合问题。

  When the Sichuan foreign language university professor Hu Anjiang questioned the western world China translation literature, what is the translation of "Literature", or "Chinese translation", a basic fact that he actually wants to clarify is that literary translation is not only a simple literature is not a problem, as long as the across language barriers can solve the problem, comprehensive but a while subject to many factors besides literature.

  胡安江是在日前于上海师范大学举行的“首届外国文学与文学翻译研究新思路青年学者峰 会”上做这一表示的。在他看来,就中译外而言,在语言的表象之外,深藏的是各类赞助人体系与各种 利益之间的互动与博弈。“西方文学系统内外的专业人士、各类赞助人,以及主流意识形态、主流诗学 、权力势差、文化失衡等多种因素,在很大程度上操纵着西方读者阅读中国现当代文学的兴趣。”

  Hu Anjiang is doing this at the Shanghai Normal University said in the day before at the first foreign literature and literary translation of new ideas for young scholars summit. In his view, in Chinese and foreign translation, in the appearance of language, what is hidden is the interaction and game between various patronage systems and various interests. "Outside the western literary system professionals, all kinds of patronage, a variety of factors and the mainstream ideology and poetics, the power of potential difference, cultural imbalance and so on, to a great extent the manipulation of Chinese reading of contemporary literature of Western readers interest."

  由此,我们不难理解何以如胡安江所言,海外的商业出版社在选择翻译中国现当代文学作 品时,总是青睐那些在他们看来能反映中国现实的作品;何以从传播与接受的现实考虑与市场推广出发 ,英语世界总是有意识地发掘并放大符合西方主流文学传统的“寓言反讽”和“伦理写作”等叙事手法 。“他们那么做,显然是在以种种‘变形记’,拉近中国文学与西方读者之间的审美距离。”

  Thus, it is not difficult to understand why such as Hu Anjiang said, the overseas commercial publishing house in the works of modern and contemporary literature translation Chinese, always in favor of those in their opinion can reflect the reality of the work Chinese; why spread from reality and consider accepting and marketing of the English world always consciously explore and enlarge the traditional the fable "irony" of western mainstream literature and "ethical narrative writing" etc.. "They did that, obviously, in order to narrow the aesthetic distance between Chinese literature and Western readers."

  这在某种意义上也因为,如胡安江所说,因为历史原因形成的,根深蒂固的对中国的误解 与偏见,使得西方读者比较依赖中国文学作为了解中国的文献资料,从而对文学做“政治化”与“伦理 化”的解读。“也因为此,如何让中国文学在外译过程中回归文学的‘正途’,或许是我们在文学‘走 出去’进程中需要认真思考的重大理论问题之一。”

  This is in some sense because, as Hu Anjiang said, because of historical reasons, misunderstanding and prejudice to the Chinese ingrained, makes the Western readers understand Chinese China depend more on the literature as literature, interpretation and "political" and "ethics" in literature. "Because of this, how to make China literature in translation process regression literature 'way', perhaps we in the literature of" going out "in the process of one of the major theoretical issues need to consider carefully."

  目前最需要努力的是,培养西方世界对中国文学的兴趣

  What is most needed now is to cultivate interest in Chinese literature in the western world

  话虽如此,目前西方世界对中国文学的了解,就如美国汉学家桑禀华坦承的那样,在美国 提到中国作家,连美国知识分子可能也只知道一两个人,比如莫言。“纸托邦”(paper Republic)创 始人、美国翻译家阿布汉森则表示,虽然中国人非常急迫地向外推广本土文学,但海外从出版社、媒体 、学者到普通读者,大部分读者对于中国文学一无所知。“这不是抵制,也不是不喜欢,就是一个空白 。”

  Nevertheless, at present the western world of literature China understanding, as the intrinsic American Sinologist sang Hua admits that mentioned China writers in the United States, even the American intellectuals could only know that one or two people, such as Mo Yan. Paper "Utopia" (paper Republic), founder of the American translator Abrahamsen said, although Chinese very urgent to promote the native literature, but from the Overseas Press, media and scholars to ordinary readers, most readers for Chinese absolutely ignorant of literature. "This is neither a boycott nor a dislike. It is a blank."

  问题是既然中国已经成为世界第二大经济体,中国的综合国力已经提升到了别国无法忽视 的程度,为何西方世界并没有急着去填补这个空白?之所以有这样的疑问,是因为如胡安江所说,我们 忽视了一个基本的事实,那就是一个国家的文学在世界文学多元系统中的地位,与其经济地位改善与否 并没有直接的关系。“拉美文学难道不是众所周知的这方面极其典型的反证吗?”

  The problem is that since China has become the world's second largest economy, China's overall national strength has risen to the point where other countries can not afford to ignore it. Why does the west not rush to fill the gap? The reason for this question is because, as Hu Anjiang said, we ignore a basic fact, that is the position of a country in the world literature in the literary polysystem, improve its economic status or not and there is no direct relationship. Is Latin American literature not well-known and is it a typical rebuttal?"

  实际上,正是基于改变经济发展与文化影响力不对等的现象,中国多年来一直在加大推广 中国文学、文化的力度。自上世纪五十年代以来,中国就进行了一系列文学外译活动,如“熊猫丛书” 等,但效果并不明显。“西方世界对于中国文学的‘东方主义’凝视及其根深蒂固的‘欧洲中心主义’ 心态、以及西方媒体对于中国政治与中国历史长期的片面报道,使得中国文学在西方读者眼里,一直是 中国政治的‘附庸’。我们某些推广,可能只是强化了这种‘附庸’的印象。”

  In fact, based on the phenomenon of unequal economic development and cultural influence, China has been strengthening the promotion of Chinese literature and culture for many years. Since the 50s of last century, China has carried out a series of literature translation activities, such as "panda series", but the effect is not obvious. "The western world for China literature 'Orientalism' and 'gaze ingrained Eurocentric" mentality, as well as the western media for Chinese political and one-sided reports long-term Chinese history, the China literature in the eyes of the Western reader, has been China' political vassal. Some of our generalizations may only reinforce the impression of 'dependency'."

  基于此,上海外国语大学教授谢天振表示,我们有必要摈弃“以我为中心”的思想,学会 尊重和适应译入语的文化语境。以他的理解,在文化外译上,过多强调“互相尊重”、“平等交流”看 似有理,实际上并不可取。因为文化外译不同于对外宣传。“在对外宣传上,我们当然要掌握话语权。 但是文化外译则不然,它首先不是要去争什么‘话语权’,也不必把‘尊重’和‘平等’机械地数字化 ,以为我翻译了你一百本书,你也应该翻译我同等数量的作品,或是在外译上追求‘大而全’,而是培 育国外读者对中国文化的兴趣和爱好,进而逐步建立起他们对中国全面、正确的认识。”

   Based on this, Professor Xie Tianzhen of Shanghai International Studies University said that it is necessary for us to abandon the idea of "taking me as the center" and learn to respect and adapt to the cultural context of the target language. In his understanding, in cultural translation, too much emphasis on "mutual respect" and "equal communication" seem reasonable, but in fact, it is not advisable. Because cultural translation is different from foreign propaganda. "In foreign propaganda, of course we should have the right to speak.". But the cultural translation is not, it is not the first to fight for what the "right to speak", also do not have to "respect" and "equality" mechanical digital, you think I translated one hundred books, you should also have the same number of translation works, or in the translation of the pursuit of "big and complete" but to cultivate foreign readers interested in Chinese culture and hobbies, and gradually establish a comprehensive and correct understanding of them on the China."

  显见的事实是,现阶段,特别是在英语世界,还没有形成对外来文化、更不要说对中国文 化感兴趣的一定数量的接受群体。在这样的情况下,谢天振以为,强调把最能代表中国文化精粹的典籍 翻译出去,却不顾对方是否喜欢,能否接受,这样的文化外译,不仅不能让中国文学文化真正“走出去 ”,效果可能适得其反。

  The obvious fact is that, at this stage, especially in the English speaking world, has not formed a certain amount interested in China cultural acceptance groups of foreign culture, not to. In this case, Xie Tianzhen thought, emphasize the most representative of the essence of China culture classics translation out, but regardless of whether the other party can accept, love, this kind of cultural translation, not only can not let China literature really go out, the effect may be counterproductive.

  正因为此,谢天振表示,目前我们最需要努力的是,培养西方世界对中国文学的兴趣。问 题在于该怎样激发这种兴趣?谢天振认为,不妨从明清之际西方传教士在中国的传教活动里吸取有益的 经验和教训。“西方传教士所做的其实也是一种文化外译活动,虽然由于它的宗教背景,显得比较特殊 。”他表示,当年传教士来到中国,虽然是来传教的,但首先奉上的不是福音书,而是自鸣钟、望远镜 、三棱镜、地图等等。正是这些新奇的事物,引起了当时中国人的浓厚兴趣。“事实上,他们在中国期 间撰写出版的有关西方科学、文化方面的书籍却比直接与宗教有关的书籍要多得多,但与此同时,他们 传播了宗教思想。”

  Because of this, Xie Tianzhen said, "what we need most to do is to cultivate interest in Chinese literature in the western world.". The question is how to stimulate this interest? Xie Tianzhen thought that it is possible to draw useful experience and lessons from the missionary activities of Western missionaries in China during the Ming and Qing dynasties. What western missionaries do is actually a kind of cultural translation activity, although it is very special because of its religious background." He said that when the missionaries came to Chinese, although is to preach, but first offer is not the gospel, but the bell, three prism, telescope, maps and so on. It was these strange things that aroused the interest of the Chinese people at that time. As a matter of fact, they wrote more books about western science and culture while they were in China than they were directly related to religion, but at the same time they spread religious ideas."

  而以最近的例子,谢天振以为可以从日本在文化推广方面的做法得到一些启迪。“我有一 个朋友在美国加州某大学任东亚系主任,他看到美国孩子多去选择读日文,却不来读中文,好奇地问他 们为什么选择读日语?得到的回答是,他们从小看日本的动漫,现在长大了,想进一步了解日本的文化 。”谢天振由此意识到,动漫虽然算不上是日本文化的精粹,但从长远看,恰是动漫培育了美国孩子对 日本文化的兴趣与爱好,从而为日本文化在美国的进一步译介打下了基础。

  In the recent case, Xie Tianzhen thought he could get some enlightenment from Japan's promotion of culture. "I have a friend who is head of the Department of East Asia at a university in California, America. He sees American kids who choose to read Japanese, but instead of reading Chinese, they ask curiously why they choose to read Japanese." The answer is, they grew up watching Japanese anime, and now grow up, want to learn more about Japan's culture." Xie Tianzhen thus realized that although the animation is not the essence of Japanese culture, but in the long run, it is the cultivation of animation American children interest in Japanese culture and hobby, which lays the foundation for further translation of Japanese culture in the United states.

  好的翻译应该不是“翻译”,而是“原创”

  Good translation should not be "translation", but "originality"

  当然,引发兴趣有一个需要长期付诸努力的,润物细无声的过程。这并不意味着,在引发 西方世界对中国文学的兴趣之前,翻译就无所作为。恰恰相反,这应该是同步进行的事情。问题只在于 ,怎样让翻译做到行之有效?

  Of course, arousing interest has a long, silent process that requires long-term effort. This does not mean that translation will do nothing until the interest of Chinese literature is aroused in the western world. On the contrary, it should be a simultaneous thing. The question is how to make translation effective

  正如胡安江所说,在翻译行为所指向的“策略抉择”方面,摆在翻译者面前,历来有“异 化”和“归化”两种选择。从民族感情和本国人民的接受度来看,“异化”看似更理想的选择。从我国 目前的中译外来看,我们也的确更多走了“异化”翻译的路。“我们抱着‘忠实’与‘充分性’的美好 ‘译’愿,致力于传播‘原汁原味’的‘中国声音’。但‘译’愿归‘译’愿,效果却是不如人意的。 ”

  As Hu Anjiang said, in terms of the "strategic choice" in translation, there are two choices of "Foreignization" and "domestication" in front of the translator. From the perspective of national feelings and the acceptance of their own people, "alienation" seems to be a better choice. As far as China is concerned, it is true that we have taken a "foreignizing" approach to translation. "We hold the" good faith "and the" full "of the good translation, willing to spread the" original flavor "of the" Chinese voice ". But the translation is willing to be translated, but the effect is not satisfactory."

  有了这样的对照,在胡安江看来,那种关注目标读者“可接受性”、缩短对象国受众与翻 译文本心理距离的“本土化”的归化翻译,即所谓“用目标读者听得懂的语言来讲述本国故事”的策略 ,才是文化外译之首选。胡安江举例表示,即使是美国学者劳伦斯·韦努蒂那样的“异化派”斗士,也 不得不承认:绝大多数出版商、书评者和读者认可的译本,无论是诗歌还是散文,小说还是非虚构,都 是那些读起来流畅的文本。换言之,好的翻译应该不是“翻译”,而是“原创”。

  With this control, in Hu Anjiang's view, the kind of attention to the target readers "acceptability", target audience and shorten the psychological distance of the translated text "localization" of translation, the so-called "with the target readers understand the language to tell their story" strategy, culture translation is preferred. For example, Hu Anjiang said that even if the United States scholars like Lawrence Venuti "Foreignization" fighter, had to admit: the vast majority of publishers, book reviewers and readers recognized versions, whether poetry or prose, fiction or non fiction, are those who read the text fluently. In other words, a good translation should not be "translation", but "originality"".

  以胡安江的理解,韦努蒂之所以得出这样的结论,是因为无论哪国文学“走出去”的初衷 与所指向的读者群体,毫无疑问是普罗大众读者,而不只是那些将翻译文本当作“翻译”而不是“原创 ”来读的“精英读者”。“以创建于1935年的企鹅出版集团为例,近百年来,他们为世界各地的读者出 版了无数的‘企鹅经典’。按照其创始人之一的里欧的说法,他们的译丛就是要努力地‘用现代英语为 普通读者呈现可读性强而且引人入胜的伟大译本’,正是在这样的指导原则下,企鹅丛书和企鹅译丛都 将‘流畅’作为自己的编辑政策与翻译政策。”

  To Hu Anjiang, Venuti is the conclusion that, because no matter which country's original literature "going out" and points to the readers, there is no doubt that the masses of readers, not just those who will translate the text as "translation" instead of "original" to read "elite readers". "For example, Penguin Group, founded in 1935, has published countless Penguin Classics for readers all over the world over the last 100 years. According to one of its founder Li Ou said, their translations is to try to "in modern English for ordinary readers readable and attractive versions, it is great" in this principle, Penguin Books and Penguin translations will be "smooth" as their editorial policy and translation policy."

  这并不难理解,上世纪初严复、林纾等人翻译西方学术论著和文学作品,就选择了“归化 ”策略,并注重当时的中国读者能“流畅”阅读。谢天振表示,他们不仅对很多作品做了大量删改,甚 至还把有的小说“改译”成了中国传统的章回体小说。“然而中国读者正是读着严复、林纾以及他们的 后来者翻译的作品,一步步走到了今天。回想一下,经过了多么漫长的时间,我们才得以让手中捧读的 翻译作品,从当初的删节本变成了今天的‘全译本’和某某外国作家的‘全集’。”

  This is not difficult to understand. At the beginning of last century, Yan Fu, Lin Shu and others translated the western academic works and literary works, and chose the "domestication" strategy, and the Chinese readers at that time were able to read fluently. Xie Tianzhen said, they not only a lot of works done a lot of pruning, and even had some novel "translations" has become a Chinese traditional historical novel. Chinese readers, however, are reading the works of Yan Fu, Lin Shu, and their successors, and they are coming to this stage step by step. Recall that after such a long time, we can let the hand picked up the translation from the original abridged edition became today's "complete translation" and "complete" certain foreign writers."

  也是在这个意义上,谢天振表示,面对当今世界、包括英语世界对中国文学、文化的译介 中存在的某些“连译带改”、甚至一些“误译”和“曲解”等现象,我们不必大惊小怪,因为文化交流 需要一个过程。“严复当年翻译《天演论》,一开头就把原文的第一人称改成了中国读者习惯的第三人 称。他还把原作的后半部分全都删节掉了,我们会因此就质疑他当初这样‘翻译’外国作品,是对中国 读者的‘曲意奉迎’吗?很简单,他只是为了让译本便于中文读者接受罢了。”

   Also in this sense, Xie Tianzhen said, in the face of the world, including the world of English Chinese literary and cultural translation in the presence of certain "even with translation", and even some "mistranslation" and "misunderstanding" phenomenon, we do not have to because the cultural exchanges need to get excited over a little thing, a process. "Yan Fu's translation of" evolution and ethics ", at the beginning of the original first person to the third person Chinese habits of readers. He is also the last part of the original all cut off, so we will have questioned whether he had such "translate" the foreign works of China readers "fawn on"? Quite simply, he just wanted to make the translation easier for Chinese readers to accept."

  在翻译研究上,我们要有充分的文化自觉

  In translation studies, we should have adequate cultural awareness

  不能不指出的一个基本事实是,我们之所以自然而然地倾向于“异化”翻译,也未必只是 民族感情使然,而在某种程度上是因为追本溯源,如谢天振所说,我们对某些翻译理念的理解存在一定 的偏差。

  A basic fact can not point out, we are naturally inclined to "Foreignization", not only the national feeling of nature, and to some extent because of it, as Xie Tianzhen said, our understanding of some translation theory has certain deviation.

  即以严复提出的,被后世封为翻译必须遵循的金科玉律的“信达雅”思想而论,谢天振表 示,这一百多年来国内翻译界环绕其展开的阐释,大部分都是对严复所说的本意的误解、误释、误读。 “因为许许多多的阐释,我们都约定俗成地认为,翻译先要‘信’后要‘达’再要‘雅’。然后说,‘ 信’是忠实于原文,‘达’是译文要明白晓畅,‘雅’是指文字优雅。但如果我们认真读《天演论》的 序言,我们可以看出,严复把‘达’放在了最重要的位置。因为,你的文字有了‘信’,如果不能“达 ”,那么从效果上讲,你即使翻译了也跟没翻译一样。”而所谓“达”,在谢天振看来,就是要让译者 的译本,以最佳的形式,在译入语境里面得到接受、得到传播、产生影响。“这是‘达’的本意,也是 翻译的本质。”

  That is proposed by Yan Fu, was closed for the later translation must follow the golden laws and precious rules "thought in XinDa," Xie Tianzhen said that in more than 100 years the Chinese translation circle around the interpretation of the most is Yan Fu's intention of misunderstanding, misinterpretation and misunderstanding. "Because of many interpretations, we all believe that translation requires" faithfulness "and" expressiveness "and" elegance ". Then said, "trust" is faithful to the original "expressiveness" is the translation to understand, "elegance" refers to the elegant words. But if we read the preface of "Tianyan", we can see that Yan Fu 'up' on the most important position. Because your words have "letter", if not "Da", then from the effect of speaking, you even translation, and no translation." The so-called "Da", in Xie Tianzhen's view, is to let the translator's translation in the best form, in the context of translation received, spread, and have an impact. "This is the meaning of" Da "and also the essence of translation."

  正是在这个意义上,上海师范大学教授郑克鲁强调,虽然翻译研究不能替代翻译实践,但 翻译研究依然是很有必要的,因为对翻译会有一定的指导作用。同时如上海师范大学教授朱振武所说, 在翻译研究上,我们要有充分的文化自觉。“我们要在学习吸纳一切世界文化的基础上,打造自己的翻 译理论,而不是过度依赖甚至套用西方文论,让自己处于严重失语状态。”

  It is in this sense, Shanghai Normal University professor Zheng Kelu stressed that although translation studies cannot replace the practice of translation, but translation studies is still very necessary, because there will be a guiding role in translation. At the same time, as Zhu Zhenwu, a professor at Shanghai Normal University, said, "in translation studies, we should have full cultural awareness.". "We should build up our own translation theories on the basis of learning and absorbing all the world cultures, rather than relying too heavily on Western literary theories to keep ourselves in a state of serious aphasia."

  而基于当下中国文化、文学翻译现状,上海外国语大学教授查明建倡言,我们更需要从译 入语文化角度来看翻译问题。“因为翻译涉及了太多带有复杂性的问题,它不只是简单的语言转换,而 是对原文某种程度上的改写,而所有的改写,都是出于意识形态的,文学的,或其他方面的意图的改写 。以此看,翻译更是一种国家行为,一种共同体行为,它同时还是一种审美行为、经济行为,等 等。”

  While the current Chinese culture, based on the status quo of literary translation, Shanghai International Studies University professor Cha Mingjian proposed that we need more translating problems from the angle of view of target language culture. "Because translation involves too much with the complexity of the problem, it is not just a simple language conversion, but to rewrite the text to a certain extent, and all rewritings, are out of ideology, literature, or other aspects of the intention of rewriting. In view of this, translation is a kind of state behavior, a community behavior, and it is also an aesthetic behavior, economic behavior, and so on."

  这在某种意义上提示我们不宜离开具体的文化语境来谈论翻译问题。仿如我国翻译西方文 学走了从“归化”到“异化”的过程,西方世界翻译中国文学,也不可避免地会经历从翻译“中国”最 终到翻译“文学”的过程,只有通过长期艰苦而卓有成效的努力,中国文学在外译过程中,才会真正回 归文学的“正途”。

  In a sense, it suggests that we should not leave the specific cultural context to talk about translation problems. I like Chinese translation of Western literature came from "domestication" to "alienation" of the process, the western world China translation literature, inevitably will experience from "Chinese" to the final translation process of translation "Literature", and very fruitful only through arduous efforts, Chinese literature in translation process, the way will really the return of literature "".